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Fresh and hardened properties of high-strength concrete incorporating byproduct fine crushed aggregate as partial replacement of natural sand

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This paper presents the fresh and hardened properties of high-strength concrete comprising byproduct fine crushed aggregates (FCAs) sourced from the crushing of three different types of rocks, namely granophyre, basalt, and granite. The lowest void contents of the combined fine aggregates were observed when 40% to 60% of natural sand is replaced by the FCAs. By the replacement of 40% FCAs, the slump and bleeding of concrete with a water-to-cement ratio of 0.45 decreased by approximately 15% and 50%, respectively, owing to the relatively high fines content of the FCAs. The 28 d compressive strength of concrete was 50 MPa when 40% FCAs were used. The slight decrease in tensile strength from the FCAs is attributed to the flakiness of the particles. The correlations between the splitting tensile and compressive strengths of normal concrete provided in the AS 3600 and ACI 318 design standards are applicable for concrete using the FCAs as partial replacement of sand. The maximum 56 d drying shrinkage is 520 microstrains, which is significantly less than the recommended limit of 1000 microstrains by AS 3600 for concrete. Therefore, the use of these byproduct FCAs can be considered as a sustainable alternative option for the production of high-strength green concrete.